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There are so many opportunities for creative music-making as part of our every day lives, work, recreation, and creative arts. Sensory processing is part of the experience. As we skillfully engage in creative activities, we become artists, musicians, performers. This starts with active exploration of our environment. Watching and listening to learn. Practising, asking questions, and sharing our experiences. Creating, learning, teaching...using materials, tools, technologies. Our hands are very important for competence in doing, being, and becoming. Our occupations express social and cultural aspects of our lives as we approach or withdraw.
The concept of Music Health practice may be unfamiliar to people in some traditional health services.

A wide range of people use their music skills to influence their state of health, and their environmental context. Health professionals use music according to their expertise and scope of practice.

People can self-manage their own music heritage and culture to 'keep culture strong' and to 'Care for Country.'

Music Health takes us into many community contexts to understand the cultural history, current music-making practices, and to develop Music Action Plans for the future. 

The focus is on supporting and enabling people to participate in music-making in a way that is meaningful to them--looking across past, present, future horizons. Musicking transcends our current situation through allowing us to use imagination to solve complex problems. We may be part of a band or ensemble that outlives our lifespan.

There are many music occupations beyond just performing, composing, and teaching. Health impacts on musicking. Music Health professionals support mental health recovery, and physical rehabilitation for musicians and those in the music industry.

For people with a disability, the aim may be to make music in the least restrictive environment, and to value every person's contribution--allowing people to have a voice and to express themselves. Pathways to music education, health and well-being are important to realising music occupation goals. 

The evidence-base for the necessity of music health practice is linked to UN Human Rights conventions--supporting people with participation in cultural life and technologies. There is also a growing evidence-base for community music initiatives in population health and social justice.

In Australia, music health professionals are registered with the
Australian Health Practioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA)--according to their health professional qualifications. Music qualifications usually supplement the health professional status, along with supervised practice and extensive professional development relevant to the particular area of Music Health practice. The Code of Ethics for each health professional group applies.
Where have all the pianists gone?
We planned to have some piano duets to celebrate International Museum Day, but somehow, the pianos and the pianists have vanished from communities.
People do not seem to play duets on the piano as much as they used to, and even pianos may be missing from learning spaces and cultural centres. In some cases pianos have been replaced by electronic keyboards and other instruments that do not need regular tuning. Derelict old pianos gather dust in halls in country towns that once used them for CWA singalongs.
But, not so many students are being trained for music occupations of playing piano at country dances which are still held in rural townships of Peak Crossing and Marburg, Queensland.

Is this the era of the Garage Band, and are pianists disappeared from bars and taverns or classrooms?
In many schools the Instrumental Music Program supports students to learn to play orchestral instruments. In many cases, piano lessons have to be arranged on a private basis for individual children to acquire keyboard skills. Perhaps this arose because of the former glut of pianists, and not enough wind, percussion or string instrument players for bands and orchestras. Guitar seems to be extremely popular in the City of Ipswich.

What used to happen?
Commonly, girls would take up the piano in primary school and follow in the role model of countless generations of mothers, aunties and grandmothers. But, not in all cultures; this seems to be the case for descendants of the European piano tradition which transferred to the colonised countries.

What is the impact of the loss of pianists to communities?

Times are changing. Some communities have adapted and discovered ways for everyone can participate in musicking, such as through drumming circles or choirs (often supported by keyboard players). Pianists still perform at eisteddfodau, and keyboard players are integral to many bands. What other instrument can play all the various parts in one accompaniment?

However, does the transmission of music skills still occur from one generation to another, or is music tuition outsourced? Can families afford private lessons? Role models are important for socialising young people into various music occupations such as playing piano. We still need musical mentors to support students to take up musicking roles at community functions.

Looking to inspire pianists in the future
It will be interesting to chart the course of these developments and to follow inspiring examples, such as the sisters, Edith and Minnie Pardey, Australian Pianola Roll pianists of the 20th Century (Jeff Brownrigg's account in Australian Dictionary of Biography, see http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/pardey-edith-emma-11338). 

Have you ever tried to describe your music occupation -- whether musicking is a part of your daily routine, recreation, or vocational tasks; or simply a goal that you aspire to? It can be difficult to define some music occupations, because being musical is part of who we are. In some societies, there is no word for music, and musicking is interwoven with peoples' lifestyles and livelihoods -- even the land and environmental context in which they live. Some fundamentals of listening and therapeutic approaches are reviewed on this page, in relation to occupational performance -- starting from activities for children, and then literature review about how music is used in creative ways to promote health and active participation.

There are opportunites for everyday listening activities at home, work, school, play:
  • Talk to your children
  • Make conversations about what happened or what someone said
  • Read stories and let child visit libraries to choose their own books
  • Make reading interactive -- ask "What do you think will happen next," before turning the page
  • Sing songs together and play musical instruments; use songbooks or music
  • Make up silly songs and rhymes, pause and let the child fill in words
  • Change the words to the song and see if the child notices 
  • Play action movement music games
  • Play clapping games
  • Use puppets or mime instructions
  • Cook together with instructions for recipe on tape
  • Narrate everyday tasks and activities as they occur
  • Play games like I Spy, Simon Says, or Hide and Seek (give instructions on where to find something/some one)
  • Listening skills games and worksheets are available from educational suppliers
  • Make up stories with each person adding one line
  • Watch a children's show or theatre production together - discuss
  • Ask what characters are saying or doing
  • Assist child to make sound recordings of preferred music, songs, rhymes, stories or meaningful sounds
  • Listening games:
    Listening Lotto, for example, is a challenging game that encourages children to listen attentively and match different sounds to corresponding pictures. Helps develop listening, audiotry sequencing, concentration and visual discrimination. Available from Skillbuilders (http://www.skillbuilders.com.au/products/skill/visual-perception/).

    Music and movement to assist Handwriting without Tears:

    Children's Songs -- links to webpages

Auditory processing difficulties are often part of sensory processing disorders which affect childrens' learning and performance of daily living and academic tasks. This is not so surprising because listening is a whole-brain, whole-body experience that connects people to their environment, and is vitally important for social communication. Listening is closly related to a person's level of arousal, attention, focus, vigiliance and concentration. The duration of a sound is also a cue to the passing of time.

Shiela Frick, an Occupational Therapist from the US, has developed the Therapeutic Listening program and training course which has toured to various countries. In her book, Listening with the Whole Body, Frick states that:

"Listening is the process of detecting, organising, and integrating sound for use with information from other senses. It is a neurophysiological response to sound and can be broken down into several steps. These include:
* orienting to sound

* locating sound
* selecting sound
* attending to sound, and
* discriminating and interpreting sound.
Listening has survival value as well as social value."

It is clear from the research literature that listening is fundamental and of crucial importance, but there is a confusing array of therapy treatment modalities that are currently on the market. The cost of purchasing specialised listening equipment can be prohibitive, but it is possible to devise listening opportunities through everyday music-making opportunities. Further review of research is essential to evidence-based practice.


Vital Links website - includes information on Therapeutic Listening programs, research base and resources.

Bazyk, S., Cimino, J., Hayers, K., Goodman, G., & Farrell, P. (2010). The use of Therapeutic Listening with preschoolers with developmental disabilities: A look at the outcomes. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools and Early Intervention, 3(2), 124-138. 

Frick ,S & Hacker, C (2001) Listening with the whole body. Madison, Wl: Vital Sounds Inc.

Hall, L & Case-Smith, J (2007) The effect of sound-based intervention on children with sensory processing disorders and visual-motor delays. Australia Journal of Occupational Therapy. 61(2), Mar-April, 209-215.
This study used a convenience sample of 10 children aged 5 to 11 years with sensory processing disorders and visual-motor delays. The results indicate that Listening programs delivered in conjunction with sensory modulation therapy, by appropriately trained occupational therapists, may be of more benefit to the children than sensory modulation therapy alone. 

Interactive Metronome website. It is now a year since Interactive Metronome training was offered to therapists in Australia. Interested to hear how this program is progressing and whether people are finding it beneficial.

The Sensory Gym offers the following sound therapy programs:
*  Berrard Auditory Integration Training
*  Therapeutic Listening
*  SAMONAS Sound Therapy

Sinha, Y., Silove, N., Hayen, A., & Williams, K. (2011). Auditory integration training and other sound therapies for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 7(12). doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003681.pub3

ETHNOMUSICKING - Beyond Reason: Sharing my Indigenous Piano Story
I first started experimenting with the idea of ethnomusicking through playing the piano as I told a story about cross-cultural experiences I had in the Purga Music Museum (2008, 2009). The term, ethnomusicking is an extension of Christopher Small's idea of 'musicking' that he wrote about in his 1998 book of that name. I discovered through performance at an music autoethnography workshop that it was easier to tell my story when I improvised on the piano. Conversely, playing the piano made it easier to tell the story and to express emotions. 'Ethnomusicking' became a word that I started to use to describe this new kind of culturally engaged music occupation. I sought to better understand the connection between musical improvisation and telling music stories through creating musical tributes to people who are significant in my life.


Kirkwood, S. (2008) Reflection on the use of life story narratives. Partners in Practice Conference, Department of Communities. 11-12 March, 2008. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Kirkwood, S (2008) Using psychoethnography to tell the music story of my neighbourhood. Autoethnography Symposium, 17 August, 2008. Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith University, Brisbane.

Kirkwood, S. (2009) Beyond reason: Sharing my Indigenous piano story. Music Autoethnography Workshop, 5-6, September, 2009. Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith University, Southbank, Brisbane, Australia.

Kirkwood, S. (2010) Ethnomusicking: Valued music occupation or audacious antics in the Purga Music Museum. Cultural Diversity in Music Education Conference Proceedings, 11-12 January, 2010, Sydney, Australia.

Ng, H. H. (2011). Free improvisation; Life expression. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 12 (14). Retrieved December 7, 2011 from

Small, C. (1998). Musicking: The meanings of performing and listening. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press.


The discussion about occupational performance within occupational therapy and occupational science literature is relevant to music occupation, and ethnomusicking. In occupational therapy, 'occupation' refers to roles and participation in activities that are part of everyday living, both within and outside of paid employment. Music occupation can be understood as part of people's work, play, rest, recreation, and social roles across the age span. Music occupations often intersect with places where we live, and may occur within or across cultural boundaries.

Participation in cultural activities has been considered a human right (
World Federation of Occupational Therapists, 2006) because “everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits” (Article 27, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations, 1948). Occupational justice principles have been applied to enable all citizens to participate in occupations of their choice -- at home, work, school, community and recreation. There are many different examples of music occupations, such as being a musician, or devising ways of becoming more musical. Wilcock (1999) developed the concept of "doing, being, and becoming" which she applied to linking health with occupational roles (Wilcock, 1999).

The idea of narrating and performing music stories is explored further in my article on
"Doing, being and becoming more active through playing part in community-based museum scenarios".

Kirkwood, Sandra (2011). Doing, being and becoming more active through playing part in community-based museum scenarios. Retrieved 15 September, Music Health Australia website. (

Wilcock, Ann. 1999. Reflections on doing, being and becoming. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal 46 (1):1-11.

World Federation of Occupational Therapists (2006) Position statement on human rights. Retreived 30 March, 2011 from

Firstly some definitions of terms used by Occupational Therapists, then a list of articles that are relevant to music as creative occupation.

The following definitions are provided by Frank & Zemke in Pollard, N, Sakellariou, D and Kronenberg, F (2009) A Political Practice of Occupational Therapy, pp.111-112. Elsevier: Edinburgh.



Occupations: In occupational therapy, occupations refer to the everyday activities that people do as individuals, in families and with communities to occupy time and bring meaning and purpose to life. Occupations include things people need to, want to and are expected to do (Approved by World Federation of Occupational Therapists Executive, July 2007).


Occupational therapy is based on the belief that the need to engage in occupation is innate and is related to survival, health, well-being, and life satisfaction. Occupational therapy, therefore, is a profession whose focus is on enabling a person (i.e. Individual client) or group of persons (i.e. group, community or an organisation client) to access and participate in activities that are meaningful, purposeful, and relevant to their lives, roles and sense of well-being’ (American Occupational Therapy Association Statement on Practice 2000, p. 3).
Occupational injustices exist when participation is barred, confined, segregated, prohibited, undeveloped, disrupted, alienated, marginalised, exploited or otherwise devalued (Townsend & Whiteford 2005, p. 112).
Occupational apartheid is:
The segregation of groups of people through the restriction or denial of access to dignified and meaningful participation in occupations of daily life on the basis of race, colour, disability, national origin, age, gender, sexual preference, religion, political beliefs, status in society, or other characteristics. Occasioned by political forces, its systematic and pervasive social, cultural, and economic consequences jeopardise health and well being as experienced by individuals, communities, and societies (Kronenberg & Pollard 2005, p. 67).
Further reading:
Schmid, Therese (2004) Meanings of creativity within occupational therapy practice. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 51, 80-88.

Allen, A. & Peppers, S. (1988) Use of a therapeutic choir as an agent for change in patients. American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Mental Health Special Interest Section Newsletter, 11(1), 2-3.


Bennett, S.L. & Maas, F. (1988) The effect of music-based life review on the life satisfaction and ego integrity of elderly people. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 51(12), 433-436.

Bernard, A. (1992) The use of music as purposeful activity: A preliminary investigation. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 10(3), 35-45.

Boyette, J. (2005) Splinting for adaptation of musical instruments. Work, 25, 99-106.

Buckbinder, L. (2007) Let the music play. OT Practice, Mar 5, 12(4), 11-16.

Cameron, T.M. (1992) Music perhaps best used by music teachers. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, Oct, 46(10), 955.

Casby, J.A. & Holm, M.B. (1994) The effect of music on repetitive disruptive vocalizations of persons with dementia. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48, 883-889.

Cottrell R.P.F., Gallant, K. (2003) The elders drum project: Enhancing quality of life for long-term care residents. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 22(2), 57-79.

Cox, E. (2010) Reviewing the role of music in the management of agitation in Alzheimer's Disease: Can it be added to the occupational therapy tool-ki? JRuralTropPublicHealth 9, pp. 82‐94.

Cox, E., Nowak, M. & Buettner, P. (2014) Live music promotes positive behaviours in people with Alzheimer's Disease. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 77(11), pp. 556-564.   

Craig, D.G. (2008) An overview of evidence-based support for the therapeutic use of music in occupational therapy. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 22(1), pp. 73-95

Earley D, Herlache E, Skelton DR (2010) Use of occupations and activities in a modified constraint-induced movement therapy program: a musician's triumphs over chronic hemiparesis from stroke. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(5), pp. 735-744.

Ferguson, S. & Voll, K. (2008) Burn pain and anxiety: The use of music relaxation during rehabilitation. The Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, 25(1), 8-14.

Frick, S. & Hacker, C. (2001) Listening with the whole body. Madison, Wl: Vital Sounds Inc. Further details at the Vital Links website

Gee, B., Devine, N., Werth, A., & Phan, V. (2013). Paediatric occupational therapists' use of sound-based interventions: a survey study. Occupational Therapy International, 20(3), 155-162.  

Griffiths, S. & Corr, S. (2007) The use of creative activities with people with mental health problems: A survey of occupational therapists. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, Mar, 70(3), 107-114.

Gutman, S.A. & Schlinder, V.P. (2007) The neurological basis of occupation. Occupational Therapy International, 14(2), 77-85.

Hall, L. & Case-Smith, J. (2007) The effect of sound-based intervention on children with sensory processing disorders and visual-motor delays. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61(2), 209-215.

Harris, M. (2014) Music as a transition for sleep. Occupational Therapy Now 16(6).

Justice, R.W. (1993) Even background music can affect listeners. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 47(3), 268.

Koomar, J., Burpee, J.D., DeJean, V., Frick S., Kawar, M.J. & Fischer D.M. (2001) Theoretical and clinical perspectives on the Interactive Metronome: a view from occupational therapy practice. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 55(2):163-166.

Lamb, B. (2003) Can you hear me? Occupational Therapy Now, May-Jun, 5(3), 21-23.

Lee, B. & Nantais, T. (1996). Use of electronic music as a occupational therapy modality in spinal cord injury rehabilitation: An occupational performance model. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 50(5), 362-369.

Letts L, Minezes J, Edwards M, Berenyi J, Moros K, O'Neill C, O'Toole C. (2011) Effectiveness of interventions designed to modify and maintain perceptual abilities in people with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 65(5):505-13.

Ma, H., Hwang, W., Lin, K. (2009) The effects of two different auditory stimuli on functional arm movement in person's with Parkinson's disease: A dual-task paradign. Clinical Rehabilitation. Mar, 23(3), 229-237.

MacDonald, R.A. & O'Donnell, P.J. (1994) An investigation into the effects of structured music workshops with adults with mental handicap. Occupational Therapy International, 1(3), 184-197.

Mangine, D., Maurer, P.A., Nelson, C., & Bauer, D.F. (1993). Effects of music on subjective reports of pain in a work hardening program, Work 3(3), 42-52.

Minato M., Zemke R. (2004) Time use of people with schizophrenia living in the community. Occupational Therapy International, 11(3), 177-191.

Mullen R, Davis JA, Polatajko HJ (2012) Passion in the performing arts: Clarifying active occupational participation. Work, 41(1), 15-25.

Neugebauer, C.T. (2008) Effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program with music and exercise groups on range of motion in young children with severe burns. J Burn Care Res, Nov-Dec; 29(6), 939-48.

Nordenbrock, R.A. (1995). Effects of music on motor performance of individuals with Parkinson's disease during instrumental activities of daily living. Unpublished Master's thesis. Rush University. Ann Arbor, MI.

Nurit W., Michal, A. (2003) Rest: A qualitative exploration of the phenomenon. Occupational Therapy International, 10 (4), 227-238.

Nwora, A. & Gee, B. (2009) A case study of a five year old child with pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified using sound-based interventions. Occupational Therapy International. 16(1),25-43.

Orloff, S.S. (2007) Ask the therapists. Starting a social program for teens with autism. Exceptional Parent, Jul, 37(7), 101.

Padilla, R. (2011). Effectiveness of environment-based interventions for people with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65(5), 514-522.

Paul, S. & Ramsey, D. (1988). The effects of electronic music-making as therapeutic activity for improving upper-extremity active range of motion. Occupational Therapy International, 5(3), 223-237.

Precin, P. (2011). Occupation as therapy for trauma recovery: A case study. Work (38), 77-81.

Pyman T. & Rugg S. (2006) Participating in a community theatre prodution: A dramatherapeutic perspective. International Journal of Therapy & Rehabilitation, Dec, 13(12), 562-571.

Shaffer, R.J., Jacokes, L.E., Cassily, J.F., Greenspan, S.I., Tuchman, R.F. & Stemmer, P.J., Jr. (2001) Effect of interactive metronome training on children with ADHD. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 55(2):155-162.

Shih YN, Huang RH, Chiang HY. (2012) Background music: Effects on attention performance.  Work. 42(4):573-8.

Sixsmith A. & Gibson G. (2007) Music and well-being of people with dementia. Ageing and Society. Jan, 27(1), 127-146.

Staal J., Pinkney L. & Roane D. (2003) Assessment of stimulus preferences in multisensory environment therapy for older people with dementia. The British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66(12), 542-550.

Stanley P. & Ramsey, D. (1998) The effects of electronic music-making as a therapeutic activity for improving upper extremity active range of motion. Occupational Therapy International, 5(3), 223-237.

Sumsion, T., Jacob, C. & Guptill, C. (2009) Motivation for continuing involvement in a leisure-based choir: The lived experiences of university choir members. Journal of Occupational Science. 16(3).

Tam, C., Schwellnus, H., Eaton, C., Hamdani, Y., Lamont, A. & Chau T. (2007) Movement-to-music computer technology: A developmental play experience for children with severe physical disabilities. Occupational Therapy International, 14(2), 99-112.

Williams, J. (2013). Music and the social model: An occupational therapist's approach to music with people labelled as having learning disabilities. London: Jessica Kingsley. 

Yancosek, K. (2007) One-handed backpacks: WRAMC occupational therapists stuff packs with useful items...Walter Reed Army Medical Centre. InMotion, Nov-Dec, 17(7), 33-34.




Barton, R., Killian, C., Bushee, M., Callen, J., Cupp, T., Ochs, B., Sharp, M. & Tetrault, K. (2008) Occupational performance issues and predictors of dysfunction in college instrumentalists. Medical Problems of Performing Artists 23(2), 72-78.

Barton, R. & Feinberg, J. (2008) Effectiveness of an educational program in health promotion and injury prevention for freshman music majors. Medical Problems of Performing Artists 23(2),

Barton, R. (2004) The aging musician, Work, 22(2), 131-138.

Butler, K. & Rosenkranz, K. (2006) Focal hand dystonia affecting musicians. Part II: an overview of current rehabilitative treatment techniques. British Journal of Hand Therapy, Autumn, 11(3), 79-87.

Earley, D, Herlache E, Skelton D (2010) Use of occupations and activities in a modified constraint-induced movement therapy program: a musician's triumph over chronic hemiparesis from stroke. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(5), 735-744.

Guptill, C., Zaza, C., & Paul, S. (2000) An occupational study of physical playing-related injuries in college music students. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Jun, 15(2), 86-90.

Guptill, C., Zaza, C., & Paul, S. (2005) Treatment preferences of injured college student musicians. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health. 25(1).

Guptill, C. (2008) Musicians' health: Applying the ICF framework in research. Disability & Rehabilitation, 30 (12-13).

Guptill, C. (2010) Injury prevention: What music teachers can do. Music Educators Journal 96(4).

Guptill, C. (2011) The lived experience of working as a musician with an injury. Work 40(3).

Guptill, C. (2011) The lived experience of professional musicians with playing-related injuries: A phenomenological inquiry. Medical Problems of Performing Artists. 26(2).

Guptill, C. (2011) Performing artists, Part 1. Work 40(3).

Guptill, C. (2012) Performing artists, Part 2. Work 41(1).

Guptill, C. (2012) Injured professional musicians and the complex relationship between occupation and health. Journal of Occupational Science. 19(3).

Guptill, C. (2014) Musicians' health: A developing role for occupational therapists. Occupational Therapy Now 16(6).

McCready, S. & Reid, D. (2007) The experience of occupational disruption among student musicians. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Dec 22(4), 140-146. 

McKenzie AL, Goldman S, Barrango C, Shrime M, Wong T, Byl N, (2009) Differences in physical characteristics and response to rehabilitation for patients with hand dystonia: musicians' cramp compared to writers' cramp. Journal Of Hand Therapy, Apr-Jun 22(2), pp. 172-81

Park, A., Guptill, C. & Sumsion, T. (2007) Why music majors pursue music despite the risk of playing-related injuries. Medical Problems of Performing Artists. Sep 22(3), 89-96. 

Price-Lackey, P. & Cashman, J. (1996) Jenny's story: Reinventing oneself through occupation and narrative configuration. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, Apr, 50(4), 306-314.

Torres-Russotto, D. & Perimutter, J. (2008) Focal dystonias of the hand and upper-extremity. The Journal of Hand Surgery, Nov, 33(9), 1657-1658.





Copley, J.A., Allison, H.D., Hill, A.E., Moran, M.C., Tait, J.A. & Day, T. (2007) Making interprofessional education real: A university clinic model, Australian Health Review. Aug, 31(3), 351-357. 

Daykin, N., McClean, S. & Bunt, L. (2007) Creativity, identity and healing: Participants' accounts of music therapy in cancer care. An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness & Medicine, Jul, 11(3), 349-370. 

Nelson, D.L., Anderson, V.G., & Gonzales, A.D. (1984). Music activities as therapy for children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Music Therapy, 21(3), 100-116. 

Paul, S. & Ramsey, D. (2000). Music therapy in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 47(3), 111-118.

Proctor S. & Bradfield S. (1999) OTs are from Venus, music therapists are from Mars. Therapy Weekly, Sep 30, 26(14), 7.





Goddard, T. (2005) The isue is: Expanding the community role for occupational therapy: Becoming political in the corporate sector. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, March/April, 59(2), 225-230. 

Kronenberg, F., Algado, S. & Pollard, N. (eds) (2005) Occupational therapy without borders: Learning from the spirit of survivors. Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Pollard, N., Sakellariou, D. & Kronenberg, F. (eds) (2009) A political practice of occupational therapy. Elsevier: Edinburgh.

Kronenberg, F., Pollard, N. & Sakellariou, D. (2011) Occupational Therapies Without Borders Vol. 2: Towards an Ecology of Occupation-based Practices. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.


Articles written and reference list compiled by Sandra Kirkwood 12 November, 2008; last updated 23 November, 2016.

© Sandra Kirkwood, 2010



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